What are the five key components of pain assessment?

The WILDA approach to pain assessment that focuses on words to describe pain, intensity, location, duration, and aggravating or relieving factors provides a concise template for evaluation in patients with acute and chronic pain. Nurses' documentation of pain has been shown to be poor, and even high pain scores do not result in nurses administering more pain relievers (Watt-Watson et al, 200. There are numerous guidelines and recommendations that incorporate the evaluation and measurement of acute and long-term pain. The development of this nursing guide was coordinated by Sueann Penrose, CNC, Children's Pain Management Service, and approved by the Nursing Clinical Effectiveness Committee.

They examine the inconvenience or unpleasantness of the intervention and the personal significance of any improvement in patient pain and function (ANZCA, 200. Relationship between nurses' knowledge and pain management outcomes for their postoperative cardiac patients. Acute pain (nociception) is associated with tissue damage and an inflammatory response, is short-lived self-limiting and does not involve neural tissue. Pain assessment is a broad concept that involves clinical judgment based on observation of the type, importance, and context of the individual's pain experience.

Self-reporting (expression) of patients about their pain is considered the gold standard of pain assessment measurement, as it provides the most valid measurement of pain (Melzack and Katz, 199. Pain assessment in infants and children is also a challenge due to the subjectivity and multidimensional nature of pain. British Pain Society and British Geriatric Society, (200 The Assessment of Pain in Older Persons — National Guidelines. It is important to take behavioral cues identified by parents and caregivers to improve pain assessment in these children. Dependence on others to assess pain, limited language, understanding and perception of pain expressed contextually.

This could result in all patients receiving a higher standard of pain assessment and management in the future and reduce the incidence of unnecessary suffering (Wilson, 200. A global scale can be used to assess the efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia for the treatment of acute pain and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the treatment of chronic pain.